a16z crypto is a venture capital fund that invests in crypto and web3 startups.

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Coinbase

Coinbase is the most trusted cryptocurrency platform, and an ideal starting point if you're new to crypto. They started in 2012 with the idea that anyone, anywhere, should be able to easily and securely send and receive Bitcoin. Today, they offer a trusted and easy-to-use platform for accessing the broader cryptoeconomy. [When you deposit on a centralised exchange you receive an IOU for your tokens, which shows up as your wallet balance. When your tokens are held on a centralised exchange, you don't physically own them – the exchange does, and you may lose them]

www.coinbase.com

Forta

The Forta Network monitors on-chain activity in real-time, detecting threats, security-related events and other noteworthy activity. The network is made up of thousands of detection bots developed by a community of Web3 developers and security experts. Each bot acts like a little security camera monitoring something specific on-chain. Some bots monitor generic threats (i.e. phishing attacks, rug pulls), and others monitor protocol-specific activity (i.e. Lido, Compound). There are two primary actors in the Forta Network: **Users, **who consume threat intel generated by the network. Users could be Web3 wallets, DeFi protocols, or centralized exchanges looking for the latest threat intel to protect their customers. **Developers,** who create and maintain detection bots. They could be a leading Web3 security team, an independent security researcher or a DeFi core dev using Forta to monitor their protocol.

forta.org

Lido

### What Lido is an open source tool and family of protocols that enables users to mint liquid staking tokens (sTokens) - These liquid staking tokens receive rewards from validation activities of writing data to the blockchain, but unlike their staked counterparts, are "unlocked" which means they can be used in other on-chain activities, like DeFi. Lido protocols let users stake native tokens (ETH, MATIC, SOL) from Ethereum, Polygon, and Solana networks in a fully permissionless way. And as the protocols are deployed on public blockchains, users do not need the website to access the smart contracts. ### Why Traditional staking means that users need to lock-up their ETH or other native asset to be able to secure the network and receive the respective rewards. However, this means that these tokens can't be used for anything else while they are staked. Lido aims to solve this problem. Lido protocols give users liquidity - users are able to receive staking rewards from validation activities, but can sell their stTokens (tokens minted on Lido) anytime they want to exit their staking position. In addition, it allows users to participate in DeFi while getting rewards - Because sTokens are unstaked and thus "liquid", users can use stTokens as building blocks in DeFi protocols at the same time as getting staking rewards from validating activities. The Lido DAO also works with experienced node operators, which decreases the likelihood of technical mistakes that could lead to slashing or penalties and minimizes the technical burden for users to receive staking rewards. Users supply the stake, and the node operators supply the know-how.

lido.fi

Morpho

Morpho Blue is a decentralized protocol enabling the overcollateralized lending and borrowing of crypto assets (ERC20 Tokens) on the Ethereum Virtual Machine. The protocol is implemented as an immutable smart contract, engineered to serve as a trustless base layer for lenders, borrowers, and applications. Morpho Blue is licensed under a dual license (BUSL-1.1 and GPLv2) which you can find [here](https://github.com/morpho-org/morpho-blue/blob/main/LICENSE). Once deployed, Morpho Blue will function in perpetuity, provided the existence of the Ethereum blockchain. ### Why Within a year, Morpho has become the third-largest lending platform on Ethereum, with over $1.5B in deposited assets. Morpho's initial version, Morpho Optimizer, operates on top of Compound and Aave to enhance the efficiency of their interest rate model. But consequently, Morpho Optimizer’s growth is constrained by the current underlying lending pool design. In particular, the current lending paradigm is: - Not Trustless: It relies heavily on its DAO and trusted contractors to monitor and update hundreds of risk parameters daily or upgrade large smart contracts. - Not Efficient: It provides inefficient rate spread, low collateralization factors, and charges fees to maintain the platform itself. - Not Flexible: It has a limited number of assets listed. Users have no choice but to subscribe to the one-size-fits-all risk-return profile proposed by the DAO. Although DeFi lending has grown rapidly under existing protocols like Aave and Compound, we need to rethink decentralized lending from the ground up to reach the next order of magnitude. Having spent two years developing the most significant platform built on top of these onchain funds, Morpho is uniquely positioned to recognize and address its limitations. As anticipated in the initial whitepaper, Morpho must metamorphose to become fully autonomous and improve the current state of DeFi lending. We call this evolution Morpho Blue 🟦.

morpho.xyz

Uniswap

Uniswap is a decentralized exchange protocol (DEX). It allows people to set up or contribute to liquidity pools consisting of various ERC-20 token pairs, or to use the available liquidity to swap their tokens against another using its Automated Market Maker (AMM) mechanism. ### Why AMMS are one of the building blocks in the crypto space as they always provide users with a price between two assets. Uniswap uses a simple X * Y = K, formula to price assets where x is the amount of one token in the liquidity pool, and y is the amount of the other. k is a fixed constant, meaning the pool’s total liquidity is always the same. ### Risk There are various risks involved with using AMMS. These include but are not limited to: Protocol Risk - risk due to mechanics in the design of a protocol. Even when the protocol functions as intended there might be risks e.g. high slippage incurred in trades due to the liquidity curve set-up Smart contract risk - This is risk from an error in the code causing the contract to operate in ways unexpected by the developers. It might leave the code vulnerable to exploits or other attacks Cybersecurity risk - Hackers, Exploiters or other malicious actors trying to attack Uniswap ### Reward Uniswap is arguably one of the largest AMMs in crypto and is usually the protocol where tokens find the most liquidity. Its UI/UX is extremely simple and users can trade most tokens with little problems.

uniswap.org

Governance discussion

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